Cornelis (Kees) Kramers studied medicine at Leiden University graduating in 1986 and became internist in the Radboud university medical center in 1996. Between 1992 and 1995 he wrote his PhD thesis on lupus nephritis. In 1998 he became Clinical Pharmacologist. From 2000-2001 he studied Ischemic Renal Failure at Harvard University, Boston, USA. Since 1995 he works at Radboud university medical center, departments of Pharmacology-Toxicology and Internal Medicine. Since 2010 he also works at the Radboudumc hospital.