Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of chronic bone marrow malignancies, predominant in the elderly and complicated by severe anemia (Anemia of the Elderly, AoE). Symptoms and complications of MDS negatively impact the quality of life, but in many cases MDS is not correctly diagnosed. It is hypothesized that 20% of all AoE cases - a total of 2 million European elderly citizens - might be explained by lower risk MDS. A large European MDS registry was set up registering clinical and quality of life parameters as well as laboratory data, including the sequencing of all the commonly causative mutations that are at the basis of the pathogenesis of the disease. So far, 2500 patients across Europe have been registered. From the information gathered, we will be able to better make individually tailored treatment choices will be derived. This project is coordinated by researchers from Radboudumc and received 6 million euros in funding from the EU Horizon 2020 program under grant agreement No. 634789.