Although urethra repair by tissue engineering has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and patients, it is not routinely used in clinical practice. A critical and comprehensive meta-analysis of studies of urethral tissue-engineering showed the current lack of progress on this topic. The meta-analysis performed by Versteegden et al. (Eur Urol 2017) illustrates the limitations of preclinical efforts to find the best possible material for urethral reconstruction and the major difficulties in taking the next step into clinical studies (Sievert). New shapes and new biomechanical characteristics have been developed for collagen tubular constructs (Surg Infect 2017) that still have to tested in animal models using preclinical grade prototypes, evaluating the impact of different sterilisation methods.