The main reason for the change from cytology to HPV testing is its higher sensitivity: HPV testing detects high grade precancerous lesions better and earlier than cytology testing does (Int J Cancer 2016). This increases the likelihood of treatment before precancerous lesions transform to the actual invasive cervical cancer. In addition, this high sensitivity and the high negative predictive value of HPV testing make longer screening intervals possible. Members of our group have been important in the scientific comparison of hrHPV detection in physician obtained samples versus self-samples obtained by the patients (Melchers and Bekkers). Also, the evaluation of women’s acceptance of the self-sampling devices has been extensively studied by our group. In a large study we compared a new brush based self-sampler with the already existing lavage based self-sampling device (PROHTECT 3B study). Primary HPV screening leads to increased referral rates for colposcopy and to possible overtreatment of young HPV positive women. Therefore, a positive hrHPV test needs an additional follow-up triage test with greater specificity before referral to the gynecologist (Int J Cancer 2016). The additional value of HPV genotyping and possible triage using DNA methylation markers was studied by members of our group in close cooperation with scientists from VU University Medical Center Amsterdam.